Sabtu, 09 Oktober 2010

How to Cope with Fever in Children

How to Cope with Fever in Children - Symptoms of illness in children that we often encounter is a fever. Actually, if the fever is and how we react to it, especially if fever occurs in our children?

What is a Fever and How occurrence?
Fever is a symptom of a rise in body temperature as the body's normal response to a disturbance. Body temperature was measured with a thermometer, said a fever if:
1. Rectal temperature (in the rectum): more than 38 º C
2. Oral temperature (in the mouth): more than 37.5 º C
3. Armpit temperature: more than 37.2 º C
4. Baby pacifier thermometer digital form: more than 37.8 º C
5. Ear temperature: rectal mode: more than 38 º C; oral mode: more than 37.5 º C

Body temperature is controlled by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is trying to keep warm body temperature (36.5 to 37.5 º C) even though the environment outside the body changes. The hypothalamus regulates the temperature by balancing heat production in muscle and liver and expenditures of heat on the skin and lungs. When there is infection, the immune system responds by releasing chemicals in the bloodstream. These chemicals will stimulate the hypothalamus to raise body temperature and ultimately will increase the number of white blood cells that are useful in fighting germs.

What causes fever?
Infection is the most common cause of fever in children. Infection is a state body that entered the germs that cause disease, can be viruses, parasites, or bacteria. Examples of infectious disease with flu symptoms are fever, inflammation of the digestive tract, ear infections, croup, and bronkhiolitis. Some children's immunization can also cause fever. When did the fever will arise depending on the vaccinations given (usually immunization DTP, Hib, and MMR). While the child who is teething, according to a study, does not cause fever.

How to measure your child's temperature?
The most accurate way is with a rectal temperature. However, oral temperature can be accurate when performed in children over 4-5 years, or ear temperatures in children over 6 months. Measuring axillary temperature is the least accurate, but can be useful when performed on children less than 3 months. When the axillary temperature over 37.2 º C, the rectal temperature should be measured. On the other hand, it is not accurate when measuring body temperature by feeling the child's skin. This is called tactile temperature (touch) because it is subjective, which is strongly influenced by the temperature measurement of people who feel the skin of the child. Here's how to measure the temperature of the child :

1. Rectal temperature: a child was placed in her lap examiner with the stomach as a basic, previously apply a little cream or jely lubricant (eg Vaseline) on the tip of the thermometer, insert the thermometer gently into the rectum child until the silver tip of the thermometer is not visible (0.5 to 1 , 25 cm in the rectum), hold the thermometer in place. Hold for 2 minutes for mercury thermometers or less than 1 minute to digital.

2. Oral temperature: keep in mind is not to measure temperature at the mouth of a child when children eat or drink hot or cold in the last 30 minutes. Previously clean the thermometer with cool water and soap and then rinse with water until clean. Place the tip of the thermometer under the tongue toward the back. Ask the children to hold a thermometer in her mouth. Strive lips to hold the thermometer in for about 3 minutes for mercury thermometers or less than 1 minute to digital.

3. Axillary temperature: place the tip of the thermometer in the armpit dry children then Hold the thermometer with mengempitnya between the elbow with your chest for 4-5 minutes.

4. The temperature of the ear: keep in mind that ear thermometers are not used for children under 6 months. When a new child from outside the house where the weather is cold, wait 15 minutes before measuring the ear temperature. Ear infections do not affect the accuracy of ear temperature. The trick, she should pull the ear outward and back before inserting the thermometer then hold the appliance in a child's ear for about 2 seconds.

Good Where? Digital thermometer or mercury?
Digital thermometers cheap, easily obtained, and the most accurate way to measure temperature. While mercury thermometers containing mercury are hazardous when exposed to the body, when the thermometer broke. If there's only mercury thermometer, be sure to be careful when shaking the glass thermometer before use.

How is your attitude when your child a fever?
It's important for parents to know when a child with fever should be sent to the doctor or be treated yourself. Below is a fever that the child's condition should be sent to the doctor or health centers:
1. Children under 3 months with a temperature of 38 º C or more, without seeing visions of the child (even if the child looks good).
2. Children over 3 months with a temperature of 38 º C or more for more than 3 days or appear sick (fussy and refused to drink).
3. Children 3-36 months with a temperature of 38.9 º C or more.
4. Children of all ages with a temperature of 40 º C or more.
5. Children of all ages who experience a febrile seizure (step). Febrile seizures are seizures that occur in children aged 6 months - 5 years with a temperature of 38 º C or more.
6. Anak all ages who experience recurrent fever.
7. Anak all ages with a fever with a chronic illness such as heart disease, cancer, lupus, or anemia crescent.
8. Child fever that accompanied the appearance of rashes on the skin.
Children can be treated alone by parents when a child older than 3 months with a temperature less than 38.9 º C, and the children appear healthy and behave normally.

The steps that we can do when a child is fever, among others :

Medicines for Fever in Children
The most effective treatment for fever is to use drugs such as paracetamol for fever (example: Pamol ®, Sanmol ®, Tempra ® l) or Ibuprofen (example: Proris ®). There are various kinds of stocks in the market such as: tablets, drops, syrups, and suppositories. This treatment can reduce the discomfort of children and reduce the temperature of 1 to 1.5 º C. While aspirin is not recommended for children under 18 years because it can cause side effects serious illness called Reye's syndrome, although the incidence of this disease is rare.

Paracetamol can be given every 4 to 6 hours as needed. When the temperature remains high despite the paracetamol was given and children older than 6 months, replaced by Ibuprofen Paracetamol can be given every 6-8 hours. The dose of paracetamol or ibuprofen should be calculated based on body weight (not age), namely: paracetamol: 10-15 mg / kg body weight each time giving the child, maximum of 60 mg / kg body weight / day. While Ibuprofen: 5-10 mg / kg weight of children each time giving a maximum of 40 mg / kg body weight / day. Example: if a child weighing 12 kg, was given paracetamol syrup 12 x (10 to 15) mg = 120 mg to 180 mg once drank. If parents difficulty in calculating the dose should consult with a pharmacist or pharmacist. Do not origin-origin in determining drug doses in children. The drug has been prescribed by a doctor then obey the rules of the drug from a doctor. If parents have doubts do not hesitate to ask for information to physicians who prescribe.

Compress at a Glance
Compress made with a towel or washcloth (washlap or a special cloth body) is moistened with water soaked in warm (30 º C) then dilapkan entire body. The decrease in body temperature occurs when water evaporates from the skin surface. Therefore, children do not "wrapped" with a cloth or a damp towel or silenced in the water due to evaporation will be inhibited. Add warm water if the fever is getting higher. Thus, the difference between the water compresses the body temperature is not too different. If the water is too cold compresses blood vessels will be pursed children. As a result, the body heat would not come out. Children become more and shivering to maintain body temperature equilibrium.

Compress can also be done by putting the child in the bathtub which was filled with warm water. Then wash the body, arms, and legs of children with these warm water. I think compress-lowering drugs are less effective than the fever. If the mother wore compress method, should be combined with the provision of fever-lowering drugs, unless the child is allergic to the drug.

Remember! Do not compress with alcohol because alcohol vapor can be absorbed into the skin or lungs of children. Membedong children under the age of 3 months with a lot of clothes or blankets to slightly raise the body temperature. According to the study, rectal temperature of 38.5 º C or more is not associated with membedong with thick cloth earlier. Therefore, it is recommended if the child fever, wear enough clothes or blankets so thin it runs good air flow.

Raising Children fluid intake
Fever in children can increase the risk of dehydration (lack of fluids). Signs of dehydration are most easily reduced urine and darker urine than usual. Therefore, parents should encourage children to drink fluids in sufficient quantities. Children with fever may not feel hungry and should not force children to eat. Liquids such as milk (or cow's milk or formula) and water should still be given or even more frequently. Older children can be given soup or fruits that contain lots of water. When children are unable or unwilling to drink within a few hours, parents should be sent to the doctor.

Child At Rest Fever
Fever caused the child's lack of confidence. Parents should encourage their children to get enough rest. Should not force the child to sleep or rest or sleep when the child is feeling better and the child can return to school or other activities when the temperature was normal in 24 hours.

During the child's fever, parents should still pay attention to other symptoms that arise. Ask the child, are there other perceived grievances, such as: dizziness, headache, pain when urinating, difficulty breathing, and others. Because fever can be a sign that there is interference with the child's health or symptoms of certain diseases. Therefore, parents should be wise in the face. Parents should know when a child with fever can be treated themselves at home or sent to the place of health care.

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